Useful References

We have compiled a number of useful reference articles about vaping, smoking, pertinent data relevant to New Zealand, health information regarding toxicity and information about nicotine.

Vaping to quit smoking New Zealand’s hugely successful information source showing how vaping is a way to quit cigarettes by getting nicotine with fewer of the toxins that come from burning tobacco.

Vaping Demystified Yorkshire Cancer Research (UK) tackles the myths and misconceptions surrounding vaping and provides smokers with the information needed to make an informed decision about vaping.

New Zealand Health Survey Data Explorer provides results from the Ministry of Health’s 2020/21 survey with comparisons to earlier surveys where possible. Results are available by gender, age group, ethnic group, neighbourhood deprivation and disability status.


ASH Year 10 Topline Smoking and Vaping The ASH Year 10 Snapshot surveys 20,000-30,000 students every year on their smoking and vaping behaviour and attitudes – one of the largest ongoing youth smoking surveys in the world.

A short but informative video with leading smoking researcher Dr Lion Shahab and Dr Rosemary Leonard, who carry out a demonstration to visually illustrate the impact of smoking vs vaping over a month (Public Health England (now UK Health Security Agency)).


Public Health England (now UK Health Security Agency) expert review concludes that e-cigarettes are around 95% safer than smoked tobacco and they can help smokers to quit.


100 specialists in nicotine science, policy and practice call on the World Health Organisation’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to take a more positive stance on tobacco harm reduction.

Zero New Zealand primary hospital admissions for vaping related disorders as of February 2022, written Parliamentary Answer to Dr Shane Reti MP from the Minister of Health, Hon Andrew Little.


UK government’s Committee on Toxicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products and the Environment (COT) analysis of e-cigarettes concluded that vapes produced “according to appropriate manufacturing standards and used as recommended, as a replacement for CC [cigarette] smoking, is likely to be associated with a reduction in overall risk of adverse health effects…”


US FDA Authorises Marketing of Tobacco Heating System with ‘Reduced Exposure’ Information. The first tobacco products to receive “exposure modification” orders from the United States’ Food and Drug Administration.


EVALI (e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury) is linked to banned ingredients like tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Vitamin E acetate (US Centres for Disease Control).

The UK Cochrane review (2021) found that with 61 completed studies that quit rates were higher in people randomised to nicotine EC than in those randomised to nicotine replacement therapy (NRT).


ASH’s Surge Strategy for Smokefree Aotearoa 2025 and the role and regulation of vaping and other low-risk smokefree nicotine products.

While nicotine is highly addictive, it doesn’t cause cancer as the Health Promotion Agency explains.


Yet a 2017 US study into adults’ addiction and harm beliefs about nicotine and low nicotine cigarettes found around 75% were either unsure of the relationship between nicotine and cancer or incorrectly believed it causes cancer.  It concluded that such beliefs could discourage smokers from switching to safer nicotine-containing alternatives.


Misperceptions about nicotine even exist among US doctors. In 2020, Rutgers found that most US doctors surveyed, incorrectly perceived nicotine was carcinogenic, caused COPD and contributed to heart disease, when in fact, combustion (smoking) the primary source of risk for tobacco diseases.

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